What sources do you use and how do you calculate the special parts of the doughnut? I want to start with the example of Serbia.
Social ring, I am sure there are different ways to calculate each:
Income and work (the latter is not limited to employment but also includes things such as housekeeping)
Peace and justice
Climate change — the human-caused emissions of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide and methane trap heat in the atmosphere, changing the Earth’s climate.
Ocean acidification — when human-emitted carbon dioxide is absorbed into the oceans, it makes the water more acidic. For example, this lowers the ability of marine life to grow skeletons and shells.
Chemical pollution — releasing toxic materials into nature decreases biodiversity and lowers the fertility of animals (including humans).
Nitrogen and phosphorus loading — inefficient or excessive use of fertiliser leads to the fertilizer running off to water bodies, where they cause algae blooms which kills underwater life.
Freshwater withdrawals — using too much freshwater dries up the source which may damage the ecosystem and be unusable after.
Land conversion — converting land for economic activity (such as creating roads and farmland) damages or removes the habitat for wildlife, removes carbon sinks and disrupts natural cycles.
Biodiversity loss — economic activity may cause a reduction in the number and variety of species. This makes ecosystems more vulnerable and may lower their capacity of sustaining life and providing ecosystem services.
Air pollution — the emission of aerosols (small particles) has a negative impact on the health of species. It can also affect precipitation and cloud formation.
Ozone layer depletion — some economic activity emits gases that damage the Earth’s ozone layer. Because the ozone layer shields Earth from harmful radiation, its depletion results for example in skin cancer in animals.
And also, which tool for modelling and get the picture?
I am sure that many before have asked these fundamental questions, but I was not able to find it.
Also, is there already the platform possibility for calculations to become automatized, (each month, quarterly, annually?).